Glossary of NR-32 Health and Safety in Health Services

Accident: A sudden and unexpected event that interferes with normal operating conditions and can result in harm to the worker, property, or the environment.

ABNT: Brazilian Association of Technical Standards.

Accidental Exposure (Ionizing Radiation): Involuntary and unforeseeable exposure resulting from an accident situation.

Operating License: Operating license or authorization provided by the local health authority. Also called sanitary license or permit.

ANVISA: National Health Surveillance Agency.

Area Controlled: An area subject to special protection and security rules to control normal exposures, prevent the spread of radioactive contamination, and prevent or limit the extent of potential exposures.

Area Monitored: An area where occupational exposure to ionizing radiation is kept under supervision, even if specific protection and safety measures are not normally required.

Biological Safety Cabinet Class II B2: A cabinet designed to offer protection to workers and the environment from chemical products, radionuclides, and biological agents that meet Biosafety Level 3 criteria. It also protects the product or assay inside the cabinet from contaminants and cross-contamination within the cabinet itself.

Biological Safety Cabinet Class II Type B2 (according to NSF 49 concepts): A cabinet with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with 99.99% to 100% filtration efficiency, average air velocity of 0.45 ± 10%, and intake air velocity through the front window of 0.5-0.55 m/s. All air entering and being exhausted from the cabinet passes through the HEPA filter, with no recirculation of air flow.

Braquiterapia: Radiotherapy using one or more sealed sources emitting gamma or beta rays for superficial, intracavitary, or interstitial applications.

Carcinogenicity: The ability of certain agents to induce or cause cancer.

Cell Cultures: In vitro growth of cells derived from tissues or organs of multicellular organisms in a nutrient medium and under sterile conditions.

Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Assessment of the absorbed radiation dose through the counting of chromosomal aberrations in a culture of lymphocytes from the irradiated individual.

CNEN: National Nuclear Energy Commission.

Colimador: An additional device to a radiation source that allows limiting the radiation field and improving imaging or exposure conditions for diagnosis or therapy.

Commission for the Control of Hospital Infection (CCIH): A body responsible for managing and controlling hospital infections.

Contamination Monitor: An instrument capable of measuring radiation levels according to the derived surface contamination limits set by CNEN NE-3.01 standards.

Controlled Area: See “Area Controlled.”

Dosimeter Individual: A device worn on parts of an individual’s body to evaluate the effective dose or equivalent dose accumulated over a given period.

Emergency Exposure (Ionizing Radiation): Deliberate exposure authorized by a competent authority during emergency situations exclusively to: a) save lives; b) prevent the escalation of accidents that may cause deaths; c) save an installation of vital importance to the country.

External Storage: The storage of waste containers until the external collection stage, in an exclusive area with easy access for collection vehicles.

Final Disposal: The placement of waste in soil, previously prepared to receive it, following technical construction and operation criteria, and with environmental licensing in accordance with CONAMA Resolution No. 237/97.

Fluoroscopy: Examination of an organ by forming an image on a fluorescent screen using X-rays.

Genotoxicity: The ability of certain agents to cause DNA damage in exposed organisms. Agents that induce mutations are called mutagenic.

Immunoglobulin: A solution containing antibodies against one or more biological agents, used to confer immediate and temporary immunity.

In Vitro Analysis: An indirect method used to determine the activity of radionuclides in the body through the analysis of biological material, mainly urine and feces samples.

In Vivo Analysis: A direct measurement method of emitted radiation, used to assess the body content or activities of specific radionuclides in specific organs. This analysis usually employs whole-body counters that detect gamma or X-rays emitted by incorporated radioactive elements at strategic points of the monitored individual’s body.

Incorporation: The action of a radioactive material at the moment it enters the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or penetration through the skin or wounds.

INMETRO: National Institute of Metrology.

International Symbol of Ionizing Radiation: A symbol used internationally to indicate the presence of ionizing radiation, accompanied by a text describing the use of ionizing radiation.

Ionizing Radiation (or simply Radiation): Any particle or electromagnetic radiation that ionizes atoms or molecules directly or indirectly when interacting with matter.

Ionizing Radiation: See “Ionizing Radiation (or simply Radiation).”

Licensed Installation: A facility or installation where radiation sources are produced, used, transported, or stored. Excludes: a) nuclear installations; b) vehicles transporting radiation sources when these are not integral parts of the vehicles.

Microrganisms: Microscopic life forms visible only under a microscope, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

Microrganisms Genetically Modified: Organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered by modern biotechnology technologies, especially recombinant DNA technology.

National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN): See “CNEN.”

Occupationally Exposed Worker to Ionizing Radiation: A worker who, due to their work at a radiative installation, may receive annual doses exceeding the primary limits for public individuals established in CNEN-NE 3.01 “Basic Radiation Protection Guidelines.”

Parasite: An organism that survives and develops at the expense of a host, possibly causing harm to the host.

Patogenicity: The ability of a biological agent to cause disease in a susceptible host.

Pia de lavagem (or simply Sink): Preferably intended for washing utensils but can also be used for handwashing.

Prions: Infectious protein particles that do not contain nucleic acids.

Quality Assurance Program: A set of systematic and planned actions to ensure adequate reliability regarding the operation of a structure, system, components, or procedures, according to an approved standard.

Radiation Source: Equipment or material that emits or is capable of emitting ionizing radiation or releasing radioactive substances or materials.

Radiodiagnosis Service: A medical establishment or sector that uses ionizing radiation for diagnosis through radiological images and/or radiographs.

Radioactive Material: Material that contains substances or elements emitting ionizing radiation.

Radioactive Waste: Any material resulting from human activities whose reuse is inappropriate or unpredictable and contains radionuclides in quantities exceeding exemption limits established by CNEN-NE-6.05 standards or another that may replace it.

Radiofármaco: A radioactive substance whose physical, chemical, and biological properties make it suitable for use in humans.

Radiological Protection: Measures aimed at protecting humans, their descendants, and the environment from possible undesired effects caused by ionizing radiation, according to basic principles established by CNEN.

Radioprotection Service: An entity specifically established to execute and maintain the radioprotection plan of an installation.

Radiotherapy: The medical application of ionizing radiation for therapeutic purposes.

Reservoir: A person, animal, object, or substance where a biological agent can persist, maintain its viability, or grow and multiply, enabling transmission to a host.

Risk Analysis: Evaluation and control of the radiological conditions of areas in an installation, including measurement of external radiation fields, surface contamination, and atmospheric contamination.

Sanitary License: See “Alvará de Funcionamento.”

Sealed Sources: Hermetically encapsulated radioactive materials to prevent leakage and contact under specific application conditions.

Sharps: Materials with a point or edge, used for piercing or cutting.

Simulation of Sealed Sources: Empty envelopes for enclosing radioactive material, used in brachytherapy training.

Storage Temporarily: Temporary storage of waste containers near generation points to expedite internal collection and optimize movement between generation points and the external collection point.

Supervised Area: See “Area Monitored.”

Teratogenicity: The property of a chemical, physical, or biological agent to induce abnormal development, either gestationally or postnatally, expressed by lethality, malformations, developmental delay, or functional aberration.

Toxins: Chemical substances synthesized by organisms that have adverse biological effects on humans.

Transmission Routes: The path taken by a biological agent from the exposure source to the host. Transmission can occur directly (without intermediaries) or indirectly (via vehicles or vectors).

Transmissibility: The ability of an agent to be transmitted to a host. The transmissibility period is the time interval during which an organism eliminates a biological agent to reservoirs or a host.

Vector Control: Operations or programs aimed at reducing, eliminating, or controlling the occurrence of vectors in a specific area.

Vectors: Organisms that transmit a biological agent from a source of exposure or reservoir to a host.

Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity of an infectious agent.

Waste Segregation: Separation of waste at the time and place of generation, according to its physical, chemical, biological characteristics, physical state, and associated risks.

Trained Worker: An individual who proves to the employer and labor inspection one of the following conditions:

a) training in the company as per NR-32;

b) training through courses conducted by private or public institutions, provided they are led by qualified professionals.