Annex II of NR-32 Classification Table of Biological Agents

1. This annex presents a table of biological agents, classified in risk classes 2, 3, and 4, according to the criteria mentioned in Annex I. For some additional information, we use the following symbols:

A: possible allergic effects
E: emerging and opportunistic agent
O: low-risk oncogenic agent
O+: moderate-risk oncogenic agent
T: toxin production
V: effective vaccine available
(*): not normally transmitted through the air
“spp”: other species of the genus, in addition to those explicitly indicated, may pose a health risk.

In the classification by genus and species, the following situations may occur:

a) in the case of more than one pathogenic species of a particular genus, the most important ones will be indicated, and the others will be followed by the designation “spp,” indicating that other species of the genus may also be pathogenic. For example: Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter spp.

b) when a single species appears in the table, for example, Rochalimaea quintana, it indicates that this specific agent is pathogenic.

2. The classification of agents considered the possible effects on healthy workers. Particular effects on workers whose susceptibility may be affected, such as in cases of pre-existing pathology, medication, immunological disorders, pregnancy, or lactation, were not considered.

3. For the correct classification of agents using this table, the following should be considered:

a) the non-identification of a particular agent in the table does not imply its automatic inclusion in risk class 1; a risk assessment should be conducted based on the known or potential properties of these agents and other representatives of the same genus or family.

b) genetically modified organisms are not included in the table.

c) in the case of agents where only the genus is indicated, non-pathogenic species and strains for humans should be considered excluded.

d) all viruses isolated in humans but not included in the table should be classified in risk class 2 until studies for their classification are concluded.

Biological AgentsClassification (groups)Notes
Acinetobacter baumannii (formerly Acinetobacter calcoaceticus)2
Actinobacillus spp2
Actinomadura madurae2
Actinomadura pelletieri2
Actinomyces gerencseriae2
Actinomyces israelii2
Actinomyces pyogenes (formerly Corynebacterium pyogenes)2
Actinomyces spp2
Aeromonas hydrophila2
Amycolata autotrophica2
Archanobacterium haemolyticum (Corynebacterium haemolyticum)2
Bacillus anthracis3
Bacteroides fragilis2
Bartonella (Rochalimea) spp2
Bartonella bacilliformis2
Bartonella henselae2
Bartonella quintana2
Bartonella vinsonii2
Bordetella bronchiseptica2
Bordetella parapertussis2
Bordetella pertussis2V
Borrelia anserina2
Borrelia burgdorferi2
Borrelia duttonii2
Borrelia persicus2
Borrelia recurrentis2
Borrelia spp2
Borrelia theileri2
Borrelia vincenti2
Brucella abortus3
Brucella canis3
Brucella melitensis3
Brucella suis3
Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)3
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei)3
Campylobacter coli2
Campylobacter fetus2
Campylobacter jejuni2
Campylobacter septicum2
Campylobacter spp2
Cardiobacterium hominis2
Chlamydia pneumoniae2
Chlamydia trachomatis2
Chlamydia psittaci (avian strains)3
Clostridium botulinum3T
Clostridium chauvoei2
Clostridium haemolyticum2
Clostridium histolyticum2
Clostridium novyi2
Clostridium perfringens2
Clostridium septicum2
Clostridium spp2
Clostridium tetani2T, V
Corynebacterium diphtheriae2T, V
Corynebacterium equi2
Corynebacterium haemolyticum2
Corynebacterium minutissimum2
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.2
Corynebacterium pyogenes2
Corynebacterium renale2
Corynebacterium spp2
Coxiella burnetii3
Dermatophilus congolensis2
Edwardsiella tarda2
Ehrlichia sennetsu (Rickettsia sennetsu)2
Ehrlichia spp2
Eikenella corrodens2
Enterobacter aerogenes/cloacae2
Enterococcus spp2
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae2
Escherichia coli (all enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive strains and those possessing the K 1 antigen)2
Escherichia coli, verocytotoxic strains (e.g., O157or O103)3(*), T
Francisella tularensis (type A)3
Haemophilus ducreyi2
Haemophilus equigenitalis3
Haemophilus influenzae2
Helicobacter pylori2
Klebsiella oxytoca2
Klebsiella pneumoniae2
Klebsiella spp2
Legionella pneumophila2
Legionella spp2
Leptospira interrogans (all serotypes)2
Listeria monocytogenes2
Listeria ivanovii2
Moraxella spp2
Mycobacterium asiaticum2
Mycobacterium avium/intracellulare2
Mycobacterium bovis (except BCG strain)3V
Mycobacterium chelonae2
Mycobacterium fortuitum2
Mycobacterium kansasii2
Mycobacterium leprae2
Mycobacterium malmoense2
Mycobacterium marinum2
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis2
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum2
Mycobacterium simiae2
Mycobacterium szulgai2
Mycobacterium tuberculosis3V
Mycobacterium xenopi2
Mycoplasma caviae2
Mycoplasma hominis2
Mycoplasma pneumoniae2
Neisseria gonorrhoeae2
Neisseria meningitidis2V
Nocardia asteroides2
Nocardia brasiliensis2
Nocardia farcinica2
Nocardia nova2
Nocardia otitidiscaviarum2
Nocardia transvalensis2
Pasteurella multocida2
Pasteurella multocida type B (buffalo strain and other virulent strains)3
Pasteurella spp2
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius2
Plesiomonas shigelloides2
Porphyromonas spp2
Prevotella spp2
Proteus mirabilis2
Proteus penneri2
Proteus vulgaris2
Providencia alcalifaciens2
Providencia rettgeri2
Providencia spp2
Pseudomonas aeruginosa2
Rhodococcus equi2
Rickettsia akari3(*)
Rickettsia australis3
Rickettsia canada3(*)
Rickettsia conorii3
Rickettsia montana3(*)
Rickettsia prowazekii3
Rickettsia rickettsii3
Rickettsia siberica3
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi3
Rickettsia typhi (Rickettsia mooseri)3
Salmonella arizonae2
Salmonella enteritidis2
Salmonella typhimurium2
Salmonella paratyphi A, B, C2V
Salmonella typhi2(*), V
Salmonella spp2
Serpulina spp2
Shigella boydii2
Shigella dysenteriae2
Shigella flexneri2
Shigella sonnei2
Staphylococcus aureus2
Streptobacillus moniliformis2
Streptococcus pneumoniae2
Streptococcus pyogenes2
Streptococcus suis2
Streptococcus spp2
Treponema carateum2
Treponema pallidum2
Treponema pertenue2
Treponema spp2
Vibrio cholerae (01 and 0139)2
Vibrio parahaemolyticus2
Vibrio vulnificus2
Vibrio spp2
Yersinia enterocolitica2
Yersinia pestis3V
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2
Yersinia spp2
Guinea pig herpesvirus2O
Shope fibroma virus2O
Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus4
Viral Enteritis Virus of ducks, geese, and swans4
Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus of cattle and deer4
Duck Viral Hepatitis Virus types 1, 2, and 34
Hamster Leukemia Virus2O
Enzootic Bovine Leukosis Virus2O
Lumpy skin disease virus4
Canine Sarcoma Virus2O
Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus2O
Lucke Frog Virus2O
Avian Adenovirus 1 – CELO Virus2O
Adenovirus 2 – Simian Virus 40 (Ad2-SV40)2O+
Adenovirus 7 – Simian Virus 40 (Ad7-SV40)2O
* LCM-Lassa viral complex (Old World arenavirus)
Lassa virus4
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (neurotropic strains)3
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (other strains)2
* Tacaribe viral complex (New World arenavirus)
Amapari virus2
Flechal virus2
Guanarito virus4
Junin virus4
Latino virus2
Machupo virus4
Paraná virus2
Pichinde virus2
Sabiá virus4
Birnavirus: including Picobirnavirus, Picotrinavirus2
Belém virus2
Mojuí dos Campos virus2
Pará virus2
Santarém virus2
Turlock virus2
* Anopheles A group
Arumateua virus2
Caraipé virus2
Lukuni virus2
Tacaiuma virus2
Trombetas virus2
Tucurui virus2
* Bunyamwera group
Iaco virus2
Kairi virus2
Macauã virus2
Maguari virus2
Sororoca virus2
Taiassuí virus2
Tucunduba virus2
Xingu virus2
* California encephalitis group
Inkoo virus2
La Crosse virus2
Lumbo virus2
San Angelo virus2
Snow hare virus2
Tahyna virus2
* Melão group
Guaroa virus2
Jamestown Canyon virus2
Keystone virus2
Serra do Navio virus2
South River virus2
Trivittatus virus2
* Group C
Apeu virus2
Caraparu virus2
Itaqui virus2
Marituba virus2
Murutucu virus2
Nepuyo virus2
Oriboca virus2
* Capim group
Acara virus2
Benevides virus2
Benfica virus2
Capim virus2
Guajará virus2
Moriche virus2
Guamá group
Ananindeua virus2
Bimiti virus2
Catú virus2
* Guamá virus2
Mirim virus2
Moju virus2
Timboteua virus2
* Simbu group
Jatobal virus2
Oropouche virus2
Utinga virus2
Hepatitis E virus2(*)
Norwalk virus2
Other Caliciviridae2
Human viruses, porcine gastroenteritis, murine hepatitis, bovine Coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis, avian infectious bronchitis, canine, rat, and rabbit Coronaviruses2
Ebola virus4
Marburg virus4
Bussuquara virus2
Cacipacoré virus2
Dengue virus types 1-42
Japanese Encephalitis virus3V
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus3
Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus4V, (a)
St. Louis Encephalitis virus2
Central European encephalitis virus4(*), V, (a)
Yellow fever virus3V
Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus4(a)
Kyasanur Forest disease virus4V, (a)
Hepatitis C virus2(*)
West Nile virus2
Ilhéus virus2
Kunjin virus2
Powassan virus3
Rocio virus3
Sal Vieja virus3
San Perlita virus3
Spondweni virus3
Andes virus3
Dobrava (Belgrade) virus3
Hantaan virus (Korean hemorrhagic fever)3
Juquitiba virus3
Prospect Hill virus2
Puumala virus2
Seoul virus3
Sin Nombre virus3
Hepatitis B virus2(*), V
Hepatitis D virus (Delta)2(*), V, (b)
Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 22
Ateles Herpesvirus (Rhadinovirus)3
Saimiri Herpesvirus (Rhadinovirus)3
Human Herpesvirus 7 (HHV7)2
Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)2
Simiae Herpesvirus (B virus)4
Varicella-zoster virus2
Marek’s disease virus2O
Epstein-Barr virus2O
Human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV-HHV6)2
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus4
Hazara virus2
Oncornavirus: C and D viruses3
Influenza viruses types A, B, and C2V (c)
Tick-borne orthomyxovirus: Dhori and Thogoto viruses2
Polyoma virus2O
Shope papilloma virus2O
BK and JC viruses2
Bovine papillomavirus2O
Human papillomavirus2
Simian Virus 40 (SV40)2
Mumps virus2V
Newcastle disease virus (non-Asian strains)2
Parainfluenza viruses types 1 to 42
Measles virus2V
Nipah virus2
Respiratory syncytial virus2
Human parvovirus (B19)2
Alenquer virus2
Ambé virus2
Anhangá virus2
Ariquemes virus2
Belterra virus2
Bujarú virus2
Candirú virus2
Toscana virus2
Icoarací virus2
Itaituba virus2
Itaporanga virus2
Jacundá virus2
Joa virus2
Morumbi virus2
Munguba virus2
Nápoles virus2
Oriximina virus2
Pacuí virus2
Serra Norte virus2
Tapará virus2
Toscana virus2
Turuna virus2
Uriurana virus2
Urucuri virus2
Coxsackie virus2
Foot-and-mouth disease virus with its various types and variants4
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis (AHC) virus2
Hepatitis A virus (human enterovirus type 72)2V
ECHO virus2
Poxvirus of goats, pigs, and birds2
Buffalopox virus2(d)
Cotia virus2
Cowpox virus (and related isolates from domestic cats and wild animals)2
Smallpox virus (major, minor)4V
Alastrim smallpox virus4
Camelpox virus4
Milker’s nodule virus2
Molluscum contagiosum virus4V
Monkeypox virus3
Orf virus2
Vaccinia virus2
Whitepox virus (“smallpox virus”)4V
Yatapox virus: Tana2
Yatapox virus: Yaba2O+
Orthoreovirus types 1, 2, and 32
Reoviruses isolated in the Amazon from Changuinola and Corriparta Groups2
Human rotavirus2
Ieri virus2
Itupiranga virus2
Tembé virus2
HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus3(*)
Rous Sarcoma Virus2O
Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus (GaLV)2O+
Murine Leukemia Virus2O
Rat Leukemia Virus2O
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV)2O+
Avian Leukosis Virus2O
Murine Sarcoma Virus2O
Simian Sarcoma Virus (SSV-1)2O+
Feline Sarcoma Virus (FeSV)2O+
Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2)3(*)
Mason-Pfizer monkey virus2O
SIV3(*), (e)
Aruac virus2
Rabies virus3V, (*)
Duvenhage virus2
Inhangapi virus2
Xiburema virus2
* Vesicular stomatitis group
Alagoas VSV-3 virus2
Carajás virus2
Cocal VSV-2 virus2
Indiana VSV-1 virus2
Juruna virus2
Marabá virus2
Maraba VSV-4 virus2
Piry virus2
* Hart Park group
Hart Park virus2
Mosqueiro virus2
* Mussuril group
Cuiabá virus2
Marco virus2
* Timbó group
Chaco virus2
Sena Madureira virus2
Timbó virus2
* Alphavirus
Aurá virus2
Bebaru virus2
Chikungunya virus2(*)
Western equine encephalomyelitis virus2V
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus2V
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus3V
Semliki Forest virus2
Ross River virus2
Mayaro virus2
Mucambo virus2(*)
Onyongnyong virus2
Pixuna virus2
Una virus2
Other known alphaviruses2
* Rubivirus: Rubella virus2V
* Pestivirus: Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus2
Prions: unclassified agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie and related animal diseases3(*), (f)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) agent3(*)
Fatal Familial Insomnia agent3(*)
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Syndrome agent3(*)
Kuru agent3(*)
Acanthamoeba castellanii2
Ancylostoma ceylanicum2
Ancylostoma duodenale2
Angiostrongylus cantonensis2
Angiostrongylus costaricensis2
Angiostrongylus spp2
Ascaris lumbricoides2A
Ascaris suum2A
Babesia divergens2
Babesia microti2
Balantidium coli2
Brugia malayi2
Brugia pahangi2
Brugia timori2
Capillaria philippinensis2
Capillaria spp2
Clonorchis sinensis2
Clonorchis viverrini2
Coccidia spp2
Cryptosporidium parvum2
Cryptosporidium spp2
Cyclospora cayetanensis2
Cysticercus cellulosae (hydatid cyst, larva of T. solium)2
Dactylaria galopava (Ochroconis gallopavum)2
Dipetalonema streptocerca2
Diphyllobothrium latum2
Dracunculus medinensis2
Echinococcus granulosus2(*)
Echinococcus multilocularis2(*)
Echinococcus vogeli2(*)
Emmonsia parva var. crescens2
Emmonsia parva var. parva2
Entamoeba histolytica2
Enterobius spp2
Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis2
Fasciola gigantica2
Fasciola hepatica2
Fasciolopsis buski2
Fonsecaea compacta2
Fonsecaea pedrosoi2
Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis)2
Giardia spp2
Heterophyes spp2
Hymenolepis diminuta2
Hymenolepis nana2
Isospora spp2
Leishmania brasiliensis2(*)
Leishmania donovani2(*)
Leishmania major2
Leishmania mexicana2
Leishmania peruviana2
Leishmania spp2
Leishmania tropica2
Leishmania ethiopica2
Loa loa2
Madurella grisea2
Madurella mycetomatis2
Mansonella ozzardi2
Mansonella perstans2
Microsporidium spp2
Naegleria fowleri2
Naegleria gruberi2
Necator americanus2
Onchocerca volvulus2
Opisthorchis felineus2
Opisthorchis spp2
Paragonimus westermani2
Plasmodium cynomolgi2
Plasmodium falciparum2(*)
Plasmodium malariae2
Plasmodium ovale2
Plasmodium spp (human and simian)2
Plasmodium vivax2
Sarcocystis suihominis2
Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boidii)2
Scedosporium prolificans (inflatum)2
Schistosoma haematobium2
Schistosoma intercalatum2
Schistosoma japonicum2
Schistosoma mansoni2
Schistosoma mekongi2
Strongyloides spp2
Strongyloides stercoralis2
Taenia saginata2
Taenia solium2(*)
Toxocara canis2
Toxoplasma gondii2
Trichinella spiralis2
Trichuris trichiura2
Trypanosoma brucei brucei2
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense2
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense2(*)
Trypanosoma cruzi2
Wuchereria bancrofti2
Acremonium falciforme2E
Acremonium kiliense2E
Acremonium potronii2E
Acremonium recifei2E
Acremonium roseogriseum2E
Alternaria anamorph of Pleospora infectoria2E
Aphanoascus fulvescens2E
Aspergillus amstelodami2E
Aspergillus caesiellus2E
Aspergillus candidus2E
Aspergillus carneus2E
Aspergillus flavus2
Aspergillus fumigatus2
Aspergillus glaucus2E
Aspergillus oryzae2E
Aspergillus penicillioides2E
Aspergillus restrictus2E
Aspergillus sydowi2E
Aspergillus terreus2E
Aspergillus unguis2E
Aspergillus versicolor2E
Beauveria bassiana2E
Blastomyces dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis)2A
Candida albicans2A
Candida lipolytica2E
Candida pulcherrima2E
Candida ravautii2E
Candida tropicalis2
Candida viswanathii2E
Chaetoconidium spp2E
Chaetomium spp2E
Chaetosphaeronema larense2E
Cladophialophora bantiana (Xylophora bantiana, Cladosporium bantianum or C. trichoides)2
Cladophialophora carrioni (Cladosporium carrioni)2
Cladosporium cladosporioides2E
Coccidioides immitis3A
Conidiobolus incongruus2E
Coprinus cinereus2E
Cryptococcus neoformans2
Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (Filobasidiella bacillispora)2A
Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (Filobasidiella neoformans var. neoformans)2A
Cunninghamella geniculata2E
Curvularia pallescens2E
Curvularia senegalensis2E
Cylindrocarpon tonkinense2E
Drechslera spp2E
Emmonsia parva var. crescens2
Emmonsia parva var. parva2
Epidermophyton floccosum2A
Epidermophyton spp2
Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis2
Exophiala moniliae2E
Fonsecaea compacta2
Fonsecaea pedrosoi2
Fusarium dimerum2E
Fusarium nivale2E
Geotrichum candidum2E
Hansenula polymorpha2E
Histoplasma capsulatum duboisii3
Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum (Ajellomyces capsulatus)3
Lasiodiplodia theobramae2E
Madurella grisea2
Madurella mycetomatis2
Madurella spp2
Microascus desmosporus2E
Microsporum aldouinii2A
Microsporum canis2A
Microsporum spp2A
Mucor rouxianus2E
Mycelia sterilia2E
Mycocentrospora acerina2E
Neotestudina rosatii2
Oidiodendron cerealis2E
Paecilomyces lilacinus2E
Paecilomyces variotti2E
Paecilomyces viridis2E
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (in the sporulation phase presents a higher risk of infection)2
Penicillium chrysogenum2E
Penicillium citrinum2E
Penicillium commune2E
Penicillium expansum2E
Penicillium marneffei2A
Penicillium spinulosum2E
Phialophora hoffmannii2E
Phialophora parasitica2E
Phialophora repens2E
Phoma hibernica2E
Phyllosticta ovalis2E
Phyllosticta spp2E
Pneumocystis carinii2
Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis2E
Rhizoctonia spp2E
Rhodotorula pilimanae2E
Rhodotorula rubra2E
Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boidii)2
Scedosporium prolificans (inflatum)2
Schizophyllum commune2E
Scopulariops acremonium2E
Scopulariops brumptii2E
Sporothrix schenckii2
Stenella araguata2E
Taeniolella stilbospora2E
Tetraploa spp2E
Trichophyton rubrum2
Trichophyton spp2
Trichosporon capitatum2E
Tritirachium oryzae2E
Volutella cinerescens2E


1. Brazil (2004) General Guidelines for Work in Containment with Biological Material. Series A: Standards and Technical Manuals. Ministry of Health, Secretariat of Science, Technology and Strategic Inputs, Brasília: Ministry of Health, 60p.

2. EU (2000) Council Directive 2000/54/EC. OJ L 262, 17.10.2000, 21p.

3. ABSA (2005) Risk Group Classification for Infectious Agents., accessed on July 11, 2005.

(a) Tick-borne encephalitis.

(b) The hepatitis D virus is pathogenic only in the presence of simultaneous or secondary infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. Thus, vaccinating individuals who are not carriers of the hepatitis B virus also immunizes against hepatitis D (Delta).

(c) Only for types A and B.

(d) Two viruses are identified: one is the buffalopox type and the other is a variant of the Vaccinia virus.

(e) To date, there is no evidence of disease in humans caused by simian-origin retroviruses. As a precaution, level 3 containment is recommended for work with this agent.

(f) To date, there is no evidence of infections in humans caused by the agents responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, level 2 containment, at minimum, is recommended for laboratory work with this agent.